**SUM**

**Use**: Adds a range of numbers.**Example**:`=SUM(A1:A10)`

sums all values in the range A1 to A10.

**PERCENTAGE**

**Use**: Converts a number to a percentage of another number.**Example**:`=A1 / B1`

where the result can be formatted as a percentage.

**RANK**

**Use**: Determines the rank of a number in a list.**Example**:`=RANK(A1, A$1:A$10)`

ranks the value in A1 within the range A1 to A10.

**IF**

**Use**: Performs a logical test and returns one value if true, another if false.**Example**:`=IF(A1 > 50, "Pass", "Fail")`

returns “Pass” if A1 is greater than 50.

**IFS**

**Use**: Evaluates multiple conditions and returns values based on the first true condition.**Example**:`=IFS(A1 > 90, "A", A1 > 80, "B", A1 > 70, "C")`

assigns a grade based on the value in A1.

**AND**

**Use**: Checks if all conditions are true.**Example**:`=AND(A1 > 10, B1 < 20)`

returns TRUE if both conditions are met.

**OR**

**Use**: Checks if at least one condition is true.**Example**:`=OR(A1 > 10, B1 < 20)`

returns TRUE if at least one condition is met.

**IFERROR**

**Use**: Returns a custom value if a formula results in an error.**Example**:`=IFERROR(A1/B1, "Error")`

returns “Error” if there is a division error.

**MAX**

**Use**: Returns the largest value in a range.**Example**:`=MAX(A1:A10)`

returns the highest value in the range.

**MIN**

**Use**: Returns the smallest value in a range.**Example**:`=MIN(A1:A10)`

returns the lowest value in the range.

**AVERAGE**

**Use**: Calculates the average of a range of numbers.**Example**:`=AVERAGE(A1:A10)`

returns the average value in the range.

**COUNT**

**Use**: Counts the number of cells containing numbers in a range.**Example**:`=COUNT(A1:A10)`

counts the number of numeric values in the range.

**COUNTBLANK**

**Use**: Counts the number of empty cells in a range.**Example**:`=COUNTBLANK(A1:A10)`

counts blank cells in the range.

**COUNTIF**

**Use**: Counts cells that meet a single criterion.**Example**:`=COUNTIF(A1:A10, ">50")`

counts cells with values greater than 50.

**COUNTIFS**

**Use**: Counts cells that meet multiple criteria.**Example**:`=COUNTIFS(A1:A10, ">50", B1:B10, "<100")`

counts cells meeting both criteria.

**SUMIF**

**Use**: Adds cells that meet a single criterion.**Example**:`=SUMIF(A1:A10, ">50")`

sums values greater than 50.

**SUMIFS**

**Use**: Adds cells that meet multiple criteria.**Example**:`=SUMIFS(A1:A10, B1:B10, "Completed", C1:C10, "<100")`

sums values based on criteria.

**AVERAGEIF**

**Use**: Calculates the average of cells that meet a single criterion.**Example**:`=AVERAGEIF(A1:A10, ">50")`

averages values greater than 50.

**AVERAGEIFS**

**Use**: Calculates the average of cells that meet multiple criteria.**Example**:`=AVERAGEIFS(A1:A10, B1:B10, "Completed", C1:C10, "<100")`

averages values based on criteria.

**UPPER**

**Use**: Converts text to uppercase.**Example**:`=UPPER(A1)`

converts the text in A1 to uppercase.

**LOWER**

**Use**: Converts text to lowercase.**Example**:`=LOWER(A1)`

converts the text in A1 to lowercase.

**PROPER**

**Use**: Capitalizes the first letter of each word in text.**Example**:`=PROPER(A1)`

capitalizes the first letter of each word in A1.

**LEFT**

**Use**: Extracts a specified number of characters from the start of a text string.**Example**:`=LEFT(A1, 5)`

extracts the first 5 characters from the text in A1.

**RIGHT**

**Use**: Extracts a specified number of characters from the end of a text string.**Example**:`=RIGHT(A1, 3)`

extracts the last 3 characters from the text in A1.

**MID**

**Use**: Extracts characters from the middle of a text string.**Example**:`=MID(A1, 2, 5)`

extracts 5 characters from A1 starting at the 2nd character.

**LEN**

**Use**: Counts the number of characters in a text string.**Example**:`=LEN(A1)`

returns the length of the text in A1.

**TRIM**

**Use**: Removes extra spaces from text.**Example**:`=TRIM(A1)`

removes extra spaces from the text in A1.

**CONCATENATE / CONCAT**

**Use**: Combines text from multiple cells into one cell.**Example**:`=CONCATENATE(A1, " ", B1)`

combines text from A1 and B1 with a space in between.

**DATE**

**Use**: Creates a date from year, month, and day.**Example**:`=DATE(2024, 9, 8)`

returns the date September 8, 2024.

**TIME**

**Use**: Creates a time from hour, minute, and second.**Example**:`=TIME(14, 30, 0)`

returns the time 14:30:00.

**DATEDIF**

**Use**: Calculates the difference between two dates in days, months, or years.**Example**:`=DATEDIF(A1, B1, "D")`

calculates the number of days between dates in A1 and B1.

**UNIQUE** (Excel 365)

**Use**: Returns unique values from a range.**Example**:`=UNIQUE(A1:A10)`

returns unique values from the range A1.

**SORT** (Excel 365)

**Use**: Sorts a range of values dynamically.**Example**:`=SORT(A1:A10)`

sorts values in the range A1.

**PRODUCT**

**Use**: Multiplies all numbers in a range.**Example**:`=PRODUCT(A1:A10)`

multiplies all values in the range.

**ROMAN**

**Use**: Converts a number to Roman numerals.**Example**:`=ROMAN(1987)`

converts the number 1987 to Roman numerals.

**SQRT**

**Use**: Returns the square root of a number.**Example**:`=SQRT(A1)`

returns the square root of the value in A1.

**POWER**

**Use**: Returns a number raised to a specified power.**Example**:`=POWER(A1, 3)`

raises the value in A1 to the power of 3.

**VLOOKUP**

**Use**: Searches for a value in the first column of a range and returns a value in the same row from a specified column.**Example**:`=VLOOKUP("Apple", A2:D10, 3, FALSE)`

looks for “Apple” in the first column and returns the corresponding value from the third column.

**HLOOKUP**

**Use**: Searches for a value in the first row of a range and returns a value in the same column from a specified row.**Example**:`=HLOOKUP("Q1", A1:D5, 3, FALSE)`

looks for “Q1” in the first row and returns the value from the third row.

**INDEX**

**Use**: Returns the value of a cell at a specific position within a range.**Example**:`=INDEX(B2:B10, 4)`

returns the value from the fourth row of the range.

**MATCH**

**Use**: Returns the relative position of an item in a range that matches a specified value.**Example**:`=MATCH("Orange", A2:A10, 0)`

returns the position of “Orange” in the list.

**XLOOKUP** (Excel 365 or newer):

**Use**: Searches for a value in a range and returns a corresponding value from another range; more versatile than VLOOKUP.**Example**:`=XLOOKUP("Item", A2:A10, B2:B10)`

finds “Item” in column A and returns the corresponding value from column B.